Leaders and Slackers on Ukraine’s Reform Process (ECFR)

12:02 PM 13-10-2016

This text is an annex to “Keeping up appearances: How Europe is supporting Ukraine’s transformation” by Gustav Gressel, Senior Policy Fellow at the ECFR, and has been compiled by national researchers in each of the EU member states.The full publication with detailed explanations is available at the ECFR website

On October 6, the report was launched in Kyiv with the support of the Institute of World Policy

Leaders are member states that contribute to the EU’s efforts to assist Ukraine and politically facilitate the European support effort to help Ukraine and counter Russian aggression. Leaders are pro-active and engaged in the reform process. For their foreign ministries Ukraine reforms are a priority. The leaders on Ukraine reforms are, in order, Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Denmark, Finland, Romania, Slovakia and Bulgaria.

Fence-sitters are member states that either fail to contribute significantly to the EU’s efforts or fail to facilitate them. Fence-sitters are member states that have to balance their economic or political interests in the EU and vis-à-vis Ukraine with interests in other fields. These member states do not hinder the EU’s efforts, but are not always proactive in pushing them forward. The fencesitters on Ukraine reforms are, in order, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Czech Republic, Ireland, Hungary, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Croatia, Luxembourg, Malta and Cyprus.

None of the slackers have openly sabotaged reform efforts or have rolled-back sanctions, but they have attempted to confine the EU’s Ukraine policy to an absolute minimum and their stance on Ukraine is largely determined by their desire to preserve positive relations with Moscow. The slackers on Ukraine reforms are, in order, Greece, Austria, and Italy.

Opinions, conclusions and recommendations expressed in this report are those of the authors and compilers of this publication.